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Your customer is willing to consolidate their log streams (access logs, application logs, security logs, etc.) in one single system. Once consolidated, the customer wants to analyze these logs in real-time based on heuristics. From time to time, the customer needs to validate heuristics, which requires going back to data samples extracted from the last 12 hours.
What is the best approach to meet your customer\’s requirements?
A. Send all the log events to Amazon SQS, set up an Auto Scaling group of EC2 servers to consume the logs, and apply the heuristics.
B. Send all the log events to Amazon Kinesis, develop a client process to apply heuristics on the logs
C. Configure Amazon CloudTrail to receive custom logs, use EMR to apply heuristics to the logs
D. Setup an Auto Scaling group of EC2 Syslog servers, store the logs on S3, use EMR to apply heuristics on the logs
Correct Answer: B
The throughput of an Amazon Kinesis stream is designed to scale without limits via increasing the number of shards within a stream. However, there are certain limits you should keep in mind while using Amazon Kinesis Streams:
By default, Records of a stream are accessible for up to 24 hours from the time they are added to the stream. You can raise this limit to up to 7 days by enabling extended data retention.
The maximum size of a data blob (the data payload before Base64-encoding) within one record is 1 megabyte (MB).
Each shard can support up to 1000 PUT records per second.
For more information about other API level limits, see Amazon Kinesis Streams Limits.
A solutions architect must implement a multi-Region architecture for an Amazon RDS for PostgreSQL database that supports a web application. The database launches from an AWS CloudFormation template that includes AWS services and features that are present in both the primary and secondary Regions.
The database is configured for automated backups, and it has an RTO of 15 minutes and an RPO of 2 hours. The web application is configured to use an Amazon Route 53 record to route traffic to the database.
Which combination of steps will result in a highly available architecture that meets all the requirements? (Choose two.)
A. Create a cross-Region read replica of the database in the secondary Region. Configure an AWS Lambda function in the secondary Region to promote the read replica during the failover event.
B. In the primary Region, create a health check on the database that will invoke an AWS Lambda function when a failure is detected. Program the Lambda function to recreate the database from the latest database snapshot in the secondary Region and update the Route 53 host records for the database.
C. Create an AWS Lambda function to copy the latest automated backup to the secondary Region every 2 hours.
D. Create a failover routing policy in Route 53 for the database DNS record. Set the primary and secondary endpoints to the endpoints in each Region.
E. Create a hot standby database in the secondary Region. Use an AWS Lambda function to restore the secondary database to the latest RDS automatic backup in the event that the primary database fails.
Correct Answer: AD
A company is migrating its three-tier web application from on-premises to the AWS Cloud. The company has the following requirements for the migration process:
Ingest machine images from the on-premises environment.
Synchronize changes from the on-premises environment to the AWS environment until the production cutover.
Minimize downtime when executing the production cutover.
Migrate the virtual machines\’ root volumes and data volumes.
Which solution will satisfy these requirements with minimal operational overhead?
A. Use AWS Server Migration Service (SMS) to create and launch a replication job for each tier of the application.
Launch instances from the AMIs created by AWS SMS. After initial testing, perform a final replication and create new instances from the updated AMIs.
B. Create an AWS CLI VM Import/Export script to migrate each virtual machine. Schedule the script to run incrementally to maintain changes in the application. Launch instances from the AMIs created by VM Import/Export. Once testing is done, rerun the script to do a final import and launch the instances from the AMIs.
C. Use AWS Server Migration Service (SMS) to upload the operating system volumes. Use the AWS CLI import snapshot command for the data volumes. Launch instances from the AMIs created by AWS SMS and attach the data volumes to the instances. After initial testing, perform a final replication, launch new instances from the replicated AMIs, and attach the data volumes to the instances.
D. Use AWS Application Discovery Service and AWS Migration Hub to group the virtual machines as an application. Use the AWS CLI VM Import/Export script to import the virtual machines as AMIs. Schedule the script to run incrementally to maintain changes in the application. Launch instances from the AMIs. After initial testing, perform a final virtual machine import and launch new instances from the AMIs.
Correct Answer: B
A company\’s lease of a colocated storage facility will expire in 90 days. The company wants to move to AWS to avoid signing a contract extension. The company\’s environment consists of 200 virtual machines and a NAS with 40 TB of data. Most of the data is archival, yet instant access is required when data is requested. Leadership wants to ensure minimal downtime during the migration. Each virtual machine has a number of customized configurations. The
company\’s existing 1 Gbps network connection is mostly idle, especially after business hours.
Which combination of steps should the company take to migrate to AWS while minimizing downtime and operational impact? (Choose two.)
A. Use new Amazon EC2 instances and reinstall all application code.
B. Use AWS SMS to migrate the virtual machines.
C. Use AWS Storage Gateway to migrate the data to cloud-native storage.
D. Use AWS Snowball to migrate the data.
E. Use AWS SMS to copy the infrequently accessed data from the NAS.
Correct Answer: AD
A user has created a VPC with public and private subnets using the VPC wizard. The VPC has CIDR 184.108.40.206/16. The private subnet uses CIDR 220.127.116.11/24. The NAT instance ID is i-a12345.
Which of the below mentioned entries are required in the main route table attached with the private subnet to allow instances to connect with the internet?
A. Destination: 18.104.22.168/0 and Target: 80
B. Destination: 22.214.171.124/0 and Target: i-a12345
C. Destination: 126.96.36.199/24 and Target: i-a12345
D. Destination: 0.0.0.0/0 and Target: i-a12345
Correct Answer: D
A user can create a subnet with VPC and launch instances inside that subnet. If the user has created a public-private subnet, the instances in the public subnet can receive inbound traffic directly from the Internet, whereas the instances in the private subnet cannot. If these subnets are created with Wizard, AWS will create two route tables and attach them to the subnets. The main route table will have the entry “Destination: 0.0.0.0/0 and Target: i-a12345”, which allows all the instances in the private subnet to connect to the internet using NAT.
You have set up a huge amount of network infrastructure in AWS and you now need to think about monitoring all of this. You decide CloudWatch will best fit your needs but you are unsure of the pricing structure and the limitations of CloudWatch.
Which of the following statements is TRUE in relation to the limitations of CloudWatch?
A. You get 10 CloudWatch metrics, 10 alarms, 1,000,000 API requests, and 1,000 Amazon SNS email notifications per customer per month for free.
B. You get 100 CloudWatch metrics, 100 alarms, 10,000,000 API requests, and 10,000 Amazon SNS email notifications per customer per month for free.
C. You get 10 CloudWatch metrics, 10 alarms, 1,000 API requests, and 100 Amazon SNS email notifications per customer per month for free.
D. You get 100 CloudWatch metrics, 100 alarms, 1,000,000 API requests, and 1,000 Amazon SNS email notifications per customer per month for free.
Correct Answer: A
Amazon CloudWatch monitors your Amazon Web Services (AWS) resources and the applications you run on AWS in real-time. You can use CloudWatch to collect and track metrics, which are the variables you want to measure for your resources and applications.
CloudWatch has the following limits:
You get 10 CloudWatch metrics, 10 alarms, 1,000,000 API requests, and 1,000 Amazon SNS email notifications per customer per month for free.
You can assign up to 10 dimensions per metric.
You can create up to 5000 alarms per AWS account. Metric data is kept for 2 weeks.
The size of a PutMetricData request is limited to 8KB for HTTP GET requests and 40KB for HTTP POST requests.
You can include a maximum of 20 MetricDatum items in one PutMetricData request. A MetricDatum can contain a single value or statistics representing many values.
A company is creating an account strategy so that it can begin using AWS. The Security team will provide each team with the permissions they need to follow the principle of least privileged access. Teams would like to keep their resources isolated from other groups, and the Finance team would like each team\’s resource usage separated for billing purposes.
Which account creation process meets these requirements and allows for changes?
A. Create a new AWS Organizations account. Create groups in Active Directory and assign them to roles in AWS to grant federated access. Require each team to tag their resources, and separate bills based on tags. Control access to resources through IAM granting the minimally required privilege.
B. Create individual accounts for each team. Assign the security account as the master account, and enable consolidated billing for all other accounts. Create a cross-account role for security to manage accounts, and send logs to a bucket in the security account.
C. Create a new AWS account, and use AWS Service Catalog to provide teams with the required resources. Implement a third-party billing solution to provide the Finance team with the resource use for each team based on tagging. Isolate resources using IAM to avoid account sprawl. Security will control and monitor logs and permissions.
D. Create a master account for billing using Organizations, and create each team\’s account from that master account. Create a security account for logs and cross-account access. Apply service control policies on each account, and grant the Security team cross-account access to all accounts. Security will create IAM policies for each account to maintain the least privileged access.
Correct Answer: B
By creating individual IAM users for people accessing your account, you can give each IAM user a unique set of security credentials. You can also grant different permissions to each IAM user. If necessary, you can change or revoke an IAM
user\’s permissions anytime. (If you give out your root user credentials, it can be difficult to revoke them, and it is impossible to restrict their permissions.)
A company requires that all internal application connectivity use private IP addresses. To facilitate this policy, a solutions architect has created interface endpoints to connect to AWS public services. Upon testing, the solutions architect notices that the service names are resolving to public IP addresses and that internal services cannot connect to the interface endpoints.
Which step should the solutions architect take to resolve this issue?
A. Update the subnet route table with a route to the interface endpoint
B. Enable the private DNS option on the VPC attributes
C. Configure the security group on the interface endpoint to allow connectivity to the AWS services
D. Configure an Amazon Route 53 private hosted zone with a conditional forwarder for the internal application
Correct Answer: B
A company has an application that sells tickets online and experiences bursts of demand every 7 days. The application has a stateless presentation layer running on Amazon EC2, an Oracle database to store unstructured data catalog information, and a backend API layer. The front-end layer uses an Elastic Load Balancer to distribute the load across nine On-Demand instances over three Availability Zones (AZs). The Oracle database is running on a single EC2 instance.
The company is experiencing performance issues when running more than two concurrent campaigns. A solutions architect must design a solution that meets the following requirements:
Address scalability issues.
Increase the level of concurrency.
Eliminate licensing costs.
Which set of steps should the solutions architect take?
A. Create an Auto Scaling group for the front end with a combination of On-Demand and Spot Instances to reduce costs. Convert the Oracle database into a single Amazon RDS reserved DB instance.
B. Create an Auto Scaling group for the front end with a combination of On-Demand and Spot Instances to reduce costs. Create two additional copies of the database instance, then distribute the databases in separate AZs.
C. Create an Auto Scaling group for the front end with a combination of On-Demand and Spot Instances to reduce costs. Convert the tables in the Oracle database into Amazon DynamoDB tables.
D. Convert the On-Demand Instances into Spot instances to reduce costs for the front end. Convert the tables in the Oracle database into Amazon DynamoDB tables.
Correct Answer: A
any company has acquired numerous companies over the past few years. The CIO for any company would like to keep the resources for each acquired company separate. The CIO also would like to enforce a chargeback model where each company pays for the AWS services it uses.
The Solutions Architect is tasked with designing an AWS architecture that allows any company to achieve the following:
Implementing a detailed chargeback mechanism to ensure that each company pays for the resources it uses.
any company can pay for AWS services for all its companies through a single invoice.
Developers in each acquired company have access to resources in their company only.
Developers in an acquired company should not be able to affect resources in their company only.
A single identity store is used to authenticate Developers across all companies.
Which of the following approaches would meet these requirements? (Choose two.)
A. Create a multi-account strategy with an account per company. Use consolidated billing to ensure that any company needs to pay a single bill only.
B. Create a multi-account strategy with a virtual private cloud (VPC) for each company. Reduce impact across companies by not creating any VPC peering links. As everything is in a single account, there will be a single invoice. Use tagging to create a detailed bill for each company.
C. Create IAM users for each Developer in the account to which they require access. Create policies that allow the users access to all resources in that account. Attach the policies to the IAM user.
D. Create a federated identity store against the company\’s Active Directory. Create IAM roles with appropriate permissions and set the trust relationships with AWS and the identity store. Use AWS STS to grant users access based on the groups they belong to in the identity store.
E. Create a multi-account strategy with an account per company. For billing purposes, use a tagging solution that uses a tag to identify the company that creates each resource.
Correct Answer: AD
A Solutions Architect must update an application environment within AWS Elastic Beanstalk using a blue/green deployment methodology. The Solutions Architect creates an environment that is identical to the existing application environment and deploys the application to the new environment.
What should be done next to complete the update?
A. Redirect to the new environment using Amazon Route 53
B. Select the Swap Environment URLs option
C. Replace the Auto Scaling launch configuration
D. Update the DNS records to point to the green environment
Correct Answer: B
A multimedia company with a single AWS account is launching an application for a global user base. The application storage and bandwidth requirements are unpredictable. The application will use Amazon EC2 instances behind an Application Load Balancer as the web tier and will use Amazon DynamoDB as the database tier. The environment for the application must meet the following requirements: Low latency when accessed from any part of the world
WebSocket support End-to-end encryption Protection against the latest security threats Managed layer 7 DDoS
Which actions should the solutions architect take to meet these requirements? (Choose two.)
A. Use Amazon Route 53 and Amazon CloudFront for content distribution. Use Amazon S3 to store static content
B. Use Amazon Route 53 and AWS Transit Gateway for content distribution. Use an Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volume to store static content
C. Use AWS WAF with AWS Shield Advanced to protect the application
D. Use AWS WAF and Amazon Detective to protect the application
E. Use AWS Shield Standard to protect the application
Correct Answer: BC
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